A detailed fatwa about music and singing – by Sheikh Abdullah al-Judai

With the Name of Allah, All-Merciful, Most Merciful

The fatwa is given below, and in PDF format here: Juday – Music and Singing – Conclusions

Some of the Sheikh’s analysis of texts from the Qur’an and Hadith on the subject are found in this presentation here.

A brief biography of Sheikh ‘Abdullah al-Judai can be found here.

Ibn Khaldun on music & singing (pp. 328-331 of the Muqaddimah, abridged translation by Rosenthal/Dawood).

A DETAILED FATWA ABOUT MUSIC & SINGING

by Sheikh ‘Abdullah b. Yusuf al-Juday’

Taken from the author’s al-Musiqi wa l-Ghina’ fi Mizan al-Islam (“Music & Singing in the Balance of Islam”), Al Judai Research & Consultations, Leeds, UK, 1425/2004, pp. 597-601

Translation by Usama Hasan, 13th February 2010

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

After this detailed presentation of the evidence and legal ruling related to the two issues of music and singing in respective, detailed chapters, I now highlight briefly the main conclusions of this study:

  1. There is no consensus (ijma’) about the legal ruling on music and singing, whether considered together or as separate issues.
  2. There is no unequivocal text (nass) from the Noble, Generous Qur’an that speaks about these two issues.
  3. There is no unequivocal text (nass) from the Sunnah that definitely forbids music or singing.
  4. In the legal positions (madhahib) of the Companions and Successors, there is no clear prohibition of music or singing.  Rather, some of them listened to music and singing and permitted this.  Precursors of the view of prohibition began to appear after them, but without indisputable, clear-cut prohibition.
  5. To claim that the Imams of the four main Sunni Madhhabs agreed on the absolute prohibition of music or singing is inaccurate.
  6. The issues of music and singing return to the basic principle (asl) in matters of habits and objects, and the established position based on evidence in this regard is one of permission (ibahah), which cannot be modified without evidence.
  7. The basic principle (asl) in sounds and speech is the permissibility of making and listening to these, and similarly for humming.  A beautiful voice or sound, in itself, is a blessing (from God).
  8. All that is narrated in condemnation of music and singing, which some hold to, thinking it is legal evidence, includes very little that is clear and indisputable.  The latter is not authentically-narrated, and it is not permissible to base legal judgments on unsound narrations.
  9. Those texts from the authentic Sunnah which the prohibitors of music and singing think is legal evidence, are in reality evidence against them to falsify their claims.  Rather, there are numerous unequivocal texts (nusus) in the authentic Sunnah that confirm the basic principle and necessitate the view that music and singing are permissible.

A Principled Judgment on Music and Singing

  1. Musical instruments were found in Arabian society before Islam and remained afterwards: no clear-cut, authentic, indisputable text (nass) came to forbid these.
  2. Sounds arising from musical instruments are lawful (halal) in principle.  They remain within the sphere of permissibility unless they are used as a means towards disobedience (of God).
  3. The exact definition of permissible singing is: that which involves intrinsically-permissible words or lyrics, whether or not it is accompanied by music.
  4. Use of the permissible for purposes involving vice changes the ruling of permissibility to prohibition in that circumstance, not in general.
  5. There is no distinction between men and women in the ruling of permissibility for music and singing.
  6. Males listening to the singing of females, or vice-versa, is intrinsically harmless: this is authentically-narrated in several evidential texts.
  7. The usage and learning of music and singing are permissible (mubah), since there is no basis to forbid what is permissible in principle.A ruling derived from this is that practising the arts of music and singing, being attracted to these or listening to them, do not by themselves damage the integrity (‘adalah) of a person.
  8. To amuse oneself by songs, whether these are called “Islamic” or “national” or other, is permissible and allowed (mubah ja’iz), whether accompanied by music or not, as long as the lyrics are intrinsically acceptable (mashru’ah).As for the remembrance of Allah Exalted by words of sanctification and praise, and as for prayers of blessing upon His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, it is acceptable and encouraged to gather together for such purposes.  It is permissible to do this melodiously (bi l-taghanni), as it is permissible to recite the Qur’an melodiously.  However, it should be noted that all of this is worship (‘ibadah) and not amusement (lahw), and so it cannot be accompanied by music because the latter is a form of amusement, and amusement cannot be a means of worship.  Similarly, it was disliked to use the trumpet or bell to call people for prayer, and the announcement by a human voice (adhan) was legislated instead.
  9. The ruling on music and singing does not differ in our times from previous ages.  Any judgment on what is popular in these matters is based on the individual lyrics.  If these lead to a prohibited matter, then the judgment is one of prohibition (haram).  If it (permissible music and singing) is accompanied by prohibited scenes, such as the uncovering of private parts (‘awrah), the forbiddance would extened to looking at such scenes, but not to the music and singing itself.

I conclude with the following words:

Firstly, music and singing are forms of amusement (lahw), so the basic principle is that they should be used to realise recognised benefits (maslahah mu’tabarah) such as expressing acceptable happiness or warding off boredom and tedium.  If they are used too much, the benefits will be correspondingly obstructed.  The permissible is harmless as long as it does not overcome the obligatory or recommended, or lead to what is prohibited or disliked, in which case it changes from being permissible to being prohibited or disliked.

Secondly, the fact that many people exceed the bounds of permissibility with such amusement does not falsify the basic principle regarding music and singing.  What is rejected of their actions is what is excessive, and it is not allowed to make changing times or improper use into a reason to prohibit the permissible.  Keeping people to the basic principle of the Law is safest for the responsibility of the person of knowledge, even if this agrees with the desires of a person of lust, for the sin is not incurred by doing what is lawful (halal), but by falling into the prohibited (haram).

Thirdly, the way to recognise the lawful (halal), the prohibited (haram) and the major symbols (sha’a’ir) of Islam is the Book and the authentic Sunnah, based upon clear principles and evident rules. It is not by rejected and fabricated ahadith, or by opinions devoid of proof or baseless views.  Otherwise, whoever wished to could say whatever they wanted, and people’s religion would become corrupted for them.  This is just one issue where you can see how far false narrations and weak opinions have played with the views of many people, whilst infallibility is only for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in what he conveyed on the authority of his Lord, Most Exalted.

This conclusion to this study will not agree with the wishes of many people, but it is enough for me that I have only arrived at it in the light of the evidence and proof of the Law, following the guidance of the basic principles and proper analysis in matters of disagreement with my opponents.

Thus, if you would like to criticise me in any aspect, let it be with arguments from the Book, the authentic Sunnah or agreed principles, not with mere opinion, for one opinion defeats another by its argument.  The most critical thing that can be said about someone who holds such as a view (as mine), it that he is to be excused according to the extent of his striving (ijtihad) and rewarded for his good intentions. Perfection is neither my attribute nor yours, and I have sought an excuse for you despite my disagreeing with your view and refuting it.

Further, I entreat you by Allah, do not refer the argument to the view of the “minority” or the “majority,” or to the dominant fatwa in a particular country, for these are not the refuges of intelligent authorities but rather, such is the state of those who follow uncritically.  And that is enough for you!

Moreover, I entreat you by Allah, do not say to me, “Your view is a tribulation (fitnah),” for tribulation lies in what opposes the message of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as Allah Exalted said, “Let those who oppose his command beware that a tribulation or painful punishment may befall them.” (Al-Nur or Light, 24:63)  I have referred both you and me in judgment to what the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought: I have arrived at a view different to yours.  Tribulation lies in concealing the verdict of the Law and covering it up, imagining that exposing it will mislead the masses.

It is Allah alone whom I ask for forgiveness for slips of the mind and tongue, and excesses of the pen and hand.

I also ask Him, Blessed and Exalted, to accept from me my efforts with this book, and similarly for those who have helped me from my family and brethren.  I ask Him to make this and other studies of mine examples that are followed in analysing many issues for this nation: by referring to principles and not to disagreement.  He is the One Whose Help is Sought, and there is no change of state or power except by Him.

You are Glorified, O Allah, and Praised.  There is no god but You.  I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You.

May Allah bless our master Muhammad, his family and companions, and grant them peace.

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23 Responses to “A detailed fatwa about music and singing – by Sheikh Abdullah al-Judai”

  1. fauzia Says:

    Thank you for this information, you mentioned that there was no consensus about music and singing, please could you clarify what the majority opionion is on this matter as I understand that as Muslims we should follow the opinion that is held by the majority of the scholars

  2. maoun Says:

    Thank you for translating this Opinion. To me, it’s sad that somebody actually has to argue at such length to prove that music and singing are not against Islam.

  3. Usama Hasan Says:

    Bismillah. Thank you for taking the time and trouble to read and comment.

    Fauzia, that is not always the case. eg the majority of religious scholars used to believe that the earth was flat and that the sun revolved around the earth (some still do). For an example of law, some claim that the majority enforce three divorces given by a husband in one breath or sitting as an irrevocable divorce, but the matter is very serious, disputed, and many Muslim countries do not enforce that view in law because it can lead to much higher divorce rates. In this issue, the point is precisely that it’s not clear what the majority view is, so we should base our views on the principles of Islamic law, which includes an allowance for context and circumstances. See the next paragraph also.

    Maoun, I agree partly. But achieving the highest levels of spirituality does involve renouncing music and singing, an issue missing from the fatwa. I will blog about that later, God-willing. Hence, the discussion is important. In similar vein, some of the early Church fathers also used to regard musical instruments as diabolical and prohibit them.

  4. A detailed fatwa about music and singing « Mohammed Abbasi Says:

    […] https://unity1.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/a-detailed-fatwa-about-music-and-singing-by-sheikh-abdullah-a… […]

  5. learning quran online Says:

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    The Quran is the most often-read book in the world. Revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the 7th century, and revered by Muslims as being God’s final Scripture and Testament, its words have been lovingly recited, memorized, and implemented by Muslims of every nationality ever since.
    “It is He Who sends down manifest Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) to His slave (Muhammad) that He may bring you out from darkness into light
    [Surah (Chapter of) al-Hadeed 57:9 – English interpretation of the Quranic Verse]
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    Allah has told us in the Quran (Quran / Koran) the stories of the earlier and later generations and the creation of the heavens and the earth. He has explained in detail what halaal is and what is haraam, the basics of good manners and morals, the rulings of worship and dealings with others, the lives of the Prophets and the righteous, and the reward and punishment of the believers and disbelievers. He has described Paradise, the abode of the believers, and He has described Hell, the abode of the disbelievers. He has made it (the Quran (Quran / Koran)) an explanation of all things:
    “And We have sent down to you the Book (the Quran (Quran / Koran)) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims)”
    The Quran (Quran / Koran) confirms the Books which came before it, the Tawraat (Torah) and Injeel (Gospel), and it is a witness over them, as Allah says (English interpretation of the Quranic Verse):
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    The faithful are inspired, consoled often moved to tears by its eloquence and poetic imagery, especially when recited aloud. And yet, the Qur’an is unique in being the only Scripture that is free of scientific inaccuracies, whose historical authenticity can be verified, and whose text has been so carefully preserved that just one authorized version (in Arabic) exists. Approximately the length of the New Testament, the Qur’an is also the only holy book that can be memorized in its entirety by people of all ages and intellectual abilities – including non-Arabic speakers – which Muslims consider to be one of its miracles.

  6. Khan Says:

    Thank you for posting this. This is the true awareness we need as Muslims. The problem is that the religion has ben hijacked by few uneducated men and we have lost the positive energy we once had as Muslims.

  7. Khan Says:

    I heard Ms. Tahmena Bokhari speak at the bmsd conference and she was amazing along with other speakers. The speakers were all bold and talented women, one who organized the first fashion week in Pakistan’s history, another who spoke about her limited childhood exposure to the arts growing up in a Muslim home and countless others who have rebelled against hardline interpretations. Please do have a look at the british muslims for secular democracy organization, really good group.

  8. A detailed fatwa on music « Bayt ul-Hikma – House of Wisdom Says:

    […] Hasan for a detailed (and surprising) fatwa on music and singing by contemporary scholar al-Judai: https://unity1.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/a-detailed-fatwa-about-music-and-singing-by-sheikh-abdullah-a… Leave a […]

  9. Hussain Says:

    Assalamualaikum to all,

    I find your desire to promote this opinion of the Shaikh very odd, why dont you promote his book on the Kalam of Allah? or other works? I feel your reasons are not just, you would not promote his book on the Kalam of Allah because it will upset the Asharees, as you desire unity, with them, you desire to ruffle the feathers of those who avoid music, why? I studied with the Shaikh, may Allah bless him, I really feel that you are using him for your own desires and whims. May Allah guide us to that which is beloved to Him.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      wa ‘alaykum as-salam. I have studied with him as well, and he also believes in Muslim unity, including with Ash’aris. I had not heard of his book on Kalamullah, thank you for telling me about it. Please study with more shuyukh, so you learn not to launch ridiculous and slanderous personal accusations, utter kaba’ir. And sectarianism is the ultimate following of whims and desires (ahwa’), may Allah give us real knowledge and wisdom.

  10. A detailed fatwa about music and singing – by Sheikh Abdullah al-Judai | Maqasid Press Says:

    […] by Usama Hasan, 13th February 2010 Posted in Fiqh, Hadith « Slippery Stone: An Inquiry into Islam’s […]

  11. Abdullah bin moataz Al hallak Says:

    I personally belive that music is haram, but i want to put my two cents in. he did not even mention the evidences and refute them all he did was say that their was not any clear evidence. I wondeer if he has ever read imam Al Albaani’s book: Tahreem Aalat Tarab.

    Abdullah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The daff is Haraam, stringed instruments are Haraam, drums are Haraam and flutes are Haraam ” Recored by Imam Al Bayhaqi And authenticated by Imam Al Albaani

    Anas bin Maalik related from the Prophet(saw)that “Two cursed sounds are that of the [wind]instrument[mizmaar] played on the occasion of joy and grace, and woeful wailing of joy and grace, and woeful wailing upon the occurrence of adversity”. Authenticated by al Hafidh Al Haythami

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Thank you for your input, br. Abdullah. Sheikh Judai discusses the textual evidence & the Imams’ positions for 600 pages before giving his 5-page conclusion, which is all that is translated above. (I have an 80-slide presentation elsewhere on this blog that summarises some of the lengthy discussion, if you’re interested.) He also mentions that he used to agree with Sheikh Albani on the subject until he did further research, and that his initial study on this subject agreed with Albani, who complimented him on what he wrote. Sheikh Albani had of course returned to Allah before Sheikh Judai arrived at or published his new opinion.

  12. Abdullah bin moataz Al hallak Says:

    And the sayings of the Imams

    Imam Abu Haneefah

    Imam Abu Haneefah has perhaps the harshest view of the four famous Imams of jurisprudence. His school of thought is the strictest, for he detested singing and considered it sinful. As for his disciples, they have explicitly confirmed the prohibition of listening to all musical amusements and pastimes, including wind instruments(mazaameer) all types of tambourines, hand drums(duff) and even the striking of sticks(al-qadeeb). They have asserted that such actions constitute disobedience to Allah and that the performer of such action is sinful, therefore necessitating rejection of his testimony. They have further stated that it is incumbent upon the Muslim to struggle to avoid listening to such things, even if he were passing by or stationed near them (without any willful intention). Abu Haneefah’s closest disciple, Abu Yoosuf, stated that if the sound of musical instruments(maazif) and amusements(malaahi) were heard coming from a house, the house could be entered without permission of its owners. The justification for this is that the command regarding the prohibition abominable things (munkaaraat) is mandatory, and cannot be established if such entering rests upon the permission of the residents of the premises. This is the madhab (position) of the rest of the Kufixc scholars as well, such as Ibraheem An-Nakhai, Ash-Shabi Hammad and Ath-Thowri. They do not differ on this issue. The same can be said of the general body of jurisprudence of Al-Basrah.

    Imaam Maalik

    It is related by Ibnul-Jowzi that Ishaaq bin Eesaa At-Tabaa asked Imaam Maalik bin Anas, the leading jurisprudence of Madeenah, about the view of the people of Madeenah regarding singing (ghinaa). He replied, “In fact, that is done by the sinful ones. “Abut-teeb At-Tabari said, “As for Maalik bin Anas, he truly did prohibit singing and listening to it. ” He further related that Maalik said, “If one purchased a slave-girl and found her to be a professional singer, he could return her to the original owner for reimbursement on the claim of having found fault in the merchandise.” The ruling of prohibition (tahreem) is generally agreed upon by the scholars of Madeenah. The Maaliki jurisprudence and commentator, Al-Qurtubi , reports Ibn Khuwayz Mandaad as saying that Imam Maalik had learned singing and music as a small boy until his mother encouraged him to leave it for a study of the religious sciences. He did, and his view became that such things were prohibited. Al-Qurtubi confirmed Maaliks view by saying that the only exception to this general ruling was the type of innocent songs such as those sung to placate the camels during travel, or during hard labour or boredom or during times of festivity and joy, such as the Eed days and weddings-the latter to the accompaniment of a simple duff(hand drum). Al-Qurtubi then said, “As for that which is done in our day, by way of the (blameworthy) innovations (bidah) of the Sufi mystics in their addition to hearing songs to the accompaniment of melodious instruments such as flutes, string instruments such as flutes, string instruments etc. such is haraam(forbidden)

    Imaam Shafiee

    In the book, Aadaabul Qadaa, As-Shafiee is reported as saying, “Verily, song is loathsome (makrooh); it resembles the false and vain thing (al-baatil). The one who partakes of it frequently is an incompetent fool whose testimony is to be rejected.” His closest and most knowledgeable disciples clearly stipulate that his position on this issue is that of prohibition (tahreem)and they rebuke those who attribute its legality to him. This is confirmed by the later Shafiite scholar, Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami. He related that one of the Ash-Shaafiites disciples, Al-Haarith Al-Muhaasibi(d. 243 H) said, “Song is haraam, just as the carcass(maytah) is.” Further more, the statement that singing is haraam is found in the treatise, Ash-Sharh Al-Kabeer, by the authoritative

    Shaffiite Scholar, Ar-Raafiee(d. 623 H). This is further corroborated by the accomplished Shaaffiite jurisprudence, Imam An-Nawawi(d. 676 H)in his Rowdah). Such is the correct view of the dependable scholars of the Shaffiite madhab. However, due to limited knowledge and personal fancy and desire, a few of their later day scholars disagree with this view.

    Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal

    Imaam Ahmads position regarding this issue has been narrated in detail by the Hanbalite jurisprudence and Quranic commentator, Abul Faraj Ibnul-Jowzi(d. 597 H. )in his treatise, Tablees Iblees(Sataan’s deception). He tells us that ghinaa during Ahmads era consisted primarily of a rhymed, rhythmical chanting (inshaad)of poems whose purpose was to lead people to a pious, abstentions way of life. However, when such chanters began to vary their simple style to one of a throbbing, affected melody, the narrations regarding Ahmad began to differ. His own son and student , Abdullah, relates that his father said, “Singing sprouts hypocrisy in the heart; it doesn’t please me. “The scholar, Ismaeel bin Ishaaq ath Thaqafi, reports that Ahmad was questioned regarding ones listening to those poems (qasaaid) to which he replied, “I despise it, for it is a bidaah(innovation). Don’t sit down to listen to its reciters. ‘Abul-Haarith relates that Ahmad said, “At-Taghyeer(129)is an innovation “whereupon it was said, “But it sensitizes and softens the heart”. Ahmad rejoined, “It is a bidaah (blameworthy innovation). ” Yaqoob Al-Haashimi narrates that Ahmad said, “At-taghyeer is a recent innovation” and Yaqoob bin Gayyath reports him a s saying that he despised at-taghyeer and prohibited ones listening to it.

    Ibnul-Jowzi then mentioned some narrations related by Abu Bakr Al-Khlallaal and Ahmads son Saalih, which indicate Ahmads not being averse to poetry sessions. It is related that Ahmad heard a singer(qawwal)a didn’t reproach him, whereupon Saalih said to him, “Oh father, didn’t you used to criticize and censure such a thing?” Ahmad replied, “That was because I was told that they were doing reproachable things, so I despised it; as for this, I do not dislike it” Ibnul-Jowzi commented at this point, “Some of this scholars of our(Hanbalite school mention that Abu Bakr Al-Khallaal(d. 311 H)and his disciple, Abdul-Azeez, permitted singing(ghinaa). Such a statement refers to the spiritual poems(qasaaid zuhduyyaat) which were prevalent during their time. This is precisely the type of singing which was not disliked by Ahmad(as previously mentioned) Ahmad bin Hanbal attests to this in the instance where he was asked regarding a deceased person who left behind him a son and a professional singing)slave-girl. The son then needed to sell her. Ahmad said that she was not to be sold on the basis of her being a singer. Upon this it was said to him that, (as a singer), she was worth, 30000 dirhams, whereas if she were sold only on the basis of her being simply a slave-girl. “Ibnul Jowzi explained, “The reason Ahmad said this is because the singing slave-girl doesn’t sing spiritual poems(qasaaid zuhdiyaat); rather she sings throbbing lyrics which incite passion in ones being. This is proof that such singing is haraam, for if it were not so, the incurred loss of the orphans sons wealth would not be permissible. Furthermore, it is reported by the jurisprudence Al-Mirwazi that Ahmad bin Hanbal said, “The earnings of the effeminate(mukhannath)singer are foul (khabeeth)because he doesn’t sing spiritual poems, but rather, he sings erotic poetry(al-ghazal)in a licentious, cooing manner. ”

    Ibnul-Jowzi concluded that it is obvious from what has preceded that the variant narrations relating to Ahmads dislike of (karaahah)or permission for singing depended upon the type of singing that was meant. As for the type of singing which is popular today, it would be forbidden according to Ahmads view. If only he could see what the people have added to it by way of innovation.

    Collected from: Music and Singing by Abu Bilal Mustafa Al Kanadi

  13. Paul Salahuddin Armstrong Says:

    Please, check out this interesting paper by Yusuf Islam, concerning the use of music…
    http://www.mountainoflight.co.uk/PDF/music_question_faith.pdf

  14. Mohsin Says:

    Salaam,

    Where can we purchase his original book on the topic?

  15. Saif al-Hadi Says:

    Ibn al-Qayyim’s (r) treatise ‘Kashf al-Ghita ‘an Hukmi Sima’ al-Ghina’ is pretty conclusive in establishing the prohibition of musical instruments, and is also a point-by-point response to the arguments and evidence of those who support music.

    So, do you at least consider it an issue (from the furu’ of the deen) wherein there is valid ‘khilaf’ among the Ulama?

    Imam ash-Shawkani (r) in Nayl al-Awtar discusses the issue at length, and concludes, after presenting the arguments from both sides, that music is at least from the umoor that are doubtful, and a Muslim should protect herself from what is doubtful in light of the famous hadith of sayidna Nu’man ibn Bashir (r).

    My point: there have been scholars who have stayed away from it out of ‘ihtiyat’. So, assuming Shaykh al-Judai’s view is correct, how much space are you willing to create for the opposite view and those adhering to it? Or are you going to just categorize them as ‘blind followers’ or ‘extremists in the religion’ or ‘uber traditionalists’ or whatever?

    Thanks to the efforts of Muslim leaders who seem to have confused moderation with modernism, there exists a growing tendency in our societies to demonize and alienate Muslims who prefer to follow the more ‘traditional’ and ‘mainstream’ opinions in Fiqh.

    I’m curious to know if you’ve read Ashis Nandy, or any other major exponent of postcolonial discourse. I strongly recommend Science, Hegemony and Violence, especially for our Ulama and Tullab.

    Ramadan Mubarak!🙂

  16. 2010 in review « UNITY Says:

    […] A detailed fatwa about music and singing – by Sheikh Abdullah al-Judai February 2010 21 comments 3 […]

  17. quran recitation Says:

    quran recitation…

    […]A detailed fatwa about music and singing – by Sheikh Abdullah al-Judai « UNITY[…]…

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