WHAT HAPPENS TO A MARRIAGE IF ONE OF THE COUPLE CONVERTS TO ISLAM?

Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim

WHAT HAPPENS TO A MARRIAGE IF ONE OF THE COUPLE CONVERTS TO ISLAM?

 Traditional Islamic jurisprudence says that Muslims should only marry each other.  The only exception to this is that Muslim men are allowed to marry women who are Ahl al-Kitab (People of Scripture), usually limited to Jews and Christians.  Traditionally, Muslim women were not allowed to marry non-Muslim men.  But what happens to a non-Muslim couple who are married, and later one or both of them convert to Islam?  Here are some fatwas on the issue, that slightly differ from each other:

A. Fatwa of The European Council for Fatwa & Research, including Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Sheikh ‘Abdullah bin Bayyah, Sheikh ‘Abdullah al-Judai, Sheikh Suhaib Hasan and others (from Sheikh ‘Abdullah bin Bayyah, Sina’at al-Fatwa, pp. 356-7)

  1. If both of the couple become Muslim, and they are not close relatives by blood or suckling that would make the marriage invalid, their marriage continues in its validity. (NB they do not need an Islamic nikah ceremony.)
  2. If only the husband converts to Islam, they are not close relatives and the wife is a person of scripture, their marriage continues in its validity.
  3. If only the wife converts to Islam, the view of the Council is that: a) if she converts before the marriage is consummated, she must leave him immediately; b) if she converts after consummation and her husband converts within 3 months or within 3 of her monthly cycles, their marriage continues in its validity; c) as before, but if a long time period has passed, she may remain with him in the expectation that he will convert also.  If he eventually converts, their marriage continues in its validity, without needing a new marriage ceremony.  d) If she wishes to leave her husband after the 3-month time period, she should seek dissolution of her marriage from the relevant authorities.

4. If the wife is Muslim and the husband is not, the four Madhhabs do not allow her to remain with him after the expiry of the 3-month period, or to have sexual relations with him.  However, some scholars allow her to remain with him, fully-married, as long as he does not harm her regarding her religious practice and as long as she has hope that he will also convert to Islam eventually.

It is authentically narrated from ‘Umar bin al-Khattab that a woman became a Muslim while her husband remained non-Muslim: he ruled, “If she wishes, she may leave him or if she wishes, she may remain with him.”  Also, there is an authentic narration from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib: “If the wife of a Jewish or Christian man becomes Muslim, he is entitled to remain her husband, since he has a covenant with the Muslims.”  Similar views are authentically-narrated from Ibrahim al-Nakh’i, Imam Sha’bi and Hammad bin Abi Sulayman.

 

B. FATWA OF SHEIKH ‘ABDULLAH AL-JUDAI (from his book Islam Ahad al-Zawjayn, pp. 249-251)

  1. There is no decisive, unequivocal text (nass qati’) about this matter.
  2. There is no consensus (ijma’) about this matter.
  3. Pre-Islamic marriages are sound and valid.  They can only be annulled for definite reasons.  Difference of religion is not a definite cause of invalidity due to the absence of an unequivocal text and due to the existence of a difference of opinion about the matter.
  4. Evidence from the Qur’an and Sunnah shows that a couple remaining together with a difference of religion does not damage the basis of their faiths.  Their relationship remains sound, not corrupt.
  5. The simple fact that one of them converts to Islam does not invalidate the marriage.
  6. Despite the multitude of people converting to Islam in his time, it is not recorded at all that the Prophet (pbuh) separated a husband and wife or ordered their separation due to one of them converting, or due to one of them converting before the other.  What is authentic from him is the opposite, as in the case of his daughter Zaynab who remained married to Abul-‘As for six years after she converted to Islam and before he did so, just before the Conquest of Mecca and after the revelation of Surah al-Mumtahinah.  The most that happened was that she emigrated and left him in Mecca after the Battle of Badr, but her emigration (hijrah) did not nullify their marriage.
  7. To say that the ayah of al-Mumtahinah ends marital relations due to a difference of religion is not correct.  It only applies when one spouse is at war with Islam (harbi), not simply a non-Muslim (kafir).
  8. The ayah of al-Mumtahinah allows a believer to marry a believing woman whose husband is at war with Islam.  It does not obligate this.  The story of Zaynab shows that a woman’s marriage to a non-Muslim (harbi) man changes from being binding to being allowed.  The reason for this is the difficulty of her returning to her harbi husband, and the difficulty she faces without a husband.
  9. The ayah forbids a Muslim man from retaining a non-Muslim wife who has not joined him in emigrating from a land of kufr to a land of Islam, or has fled from him, renouncing her faith and joining non-Muslims who are at war with Islam.  The reason for this is to prevent an inclination towards ones enemies, as happened with Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, who wrote to the polytheists about some of the movements of the Muslims due to the presence of some of his relatives in Mecca.
  10. When one of the couple converts to Islam whilst the other is not at war with Islam, they are allowed to remain together.  They are not separated simply due to difference of religion.  The evidence for this is the practice of the Prophet (pbuh) and the Companions regarding those who embraced Islam in Mecca before the Hijrah and at the Conquest of Mecca.  This was also the fatwa given by ‘Umar during his caliphate without any opposition, and also by ‘Ali.
  11. A difference in religion due to the conversion of one of the couple to Islam allows the annulment of the marriage but does not obligate it, as shown by the judgment of ‘Umar with the endorsement of the Companions.
  12. The conclusions of the Madhhabs in this matter are not to be given precedence due to their opposition to what is established, weakness of evidence (dalil), weakness of juristic indication (istidlal), or all of the above.
  13. The allowance for the couple to remain together means that their marital life together is permitted, including sexual intercourse.

 

C. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE LIKELY EFFECTS ON CHILDREN

The majority of jurists regard a man who doesn’t pray regularly out of laziness as still a Muslim and not a kafir, so his wife is not obliged to divorce him.

In certain situations, the wife is allowed to have patience and persevere with her marriage, despite the objectionable behaviour of her husband, especially if she has children from him and she fears that they will become psychologically ruined and wasted.

(Sheikh ‘Abdullah bin Bayyah, Sina’at al-Fatwa, p. 353)

Compiled and translated by Usama Hasan, London, 13th January 2012

Minor updates: 21/12/2015

A PDF version of this article can be found here: One of a couple converting to Islam

Update: 26/01/2017

D. A SIMILAR ANSWER GIVEN BY SHAYKH GIBRIL FOUAD HADDAD

Q&A reposted from http://eshaykh.com/halal_haram/convert-required-to-divorce-non-muslim-spouse/

Convert required to divorce non-Muslim spouse?

Question:

As-salamu ‘alaikum,

An urgent question that has certainly come up again and again, requiring an absolutely authoritative answer, is what is to be done if a married woman accepts Islam but her husband does not.

Let’s say as an extreme example that they’ve been married for fifty years, have ten children together and love each other dearly. The wife has no job skills with which to provide for herself, much less for her children; the husband is ill or handicapped and his wife takes care of his needs. He’s fine with her new faith and lets her practice as she likes and teach it to their children but does not want to accept or commit to it for himself.

What to do? Telling a Muslim woman who is already married to a non-Muslim man that she must divorce him because staying with him is haram, deserves the death penalty and will earn her Hell isn’t the same thing as telling an unmarried Muslimah that their intended marriage to a non-Muslim man is prohibited and will nullify her profession of Islam. Moreover, there are no children involved who love their father and might end up traumatized and hating Islam if it the breakup of the household. Additionally, forcing *already-married couples *to break up would certainly deter many non-Muslim women from converting to Islam, no matter how much they may wish to if it means breaking an existing or possible future marriage.

Please understand that I’m not arguing with Allah Subhanuhu wa T’a’ala. Hasha,  God forbid! Rather, I’m just trying to understand how the Islamic Shar’iah deals with this specific situation, which is certainly not rare in our time. The website,

https://unity1.wordpress.com/2012/01/13/what-happens-to-a-marriage-if-one-of-the-couple-converts-to-islam/

deals with the issue but I need to know how acceptable this opinion is for Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jam’ah. May Allah greatly reward you for any help you can give.

Answer:

Alaykum salam,

If there is acceptance on his part and tolerance for his wife’s religion then there is hope for himself eventually accepting Islam. This hope is the basis for validating the continuity of their marriage as in the case of Fatima bint Asad and her non-Muslim husband Abu Talib.

And Allah knows best.

Hajj Gibril Haddad

Advertisements

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

49 Responses to “WHAT HAPPENS TO A MARRIAGE IF ONE OF THE COUPLE CONVERTS TO ISLAM?”

  1. Mike hatfield Says:

    When The Prophet (SAW) liberated Makkah, Ikrama abi Jahal, fled. His wife embraced Islam and the Prophet (SAW) forgave Ikrama.

    When she caught up with him and said he was forgive, they journeyed back. He tried to be intimate with her, but she did not allow this because he was still non Muslim.

    Todays sholars will also permit the marriage of man with man soon!!! The prophet (SAW) warned the fitna of a man with knowledge!! These ulema shouild fear Allah

  2. muslim sex advice Says:

    muslim sex advice…

    […]WHAT HAPPENS TO A MARRIAGE IF ONE OF THE COUPLE CONVERTS TO ISLAM? « UNITY[…]…

  3. Zeenat Says:

    If marriage between muslims and non-muslims are valid in the case above, what’s the difference in a muslim woman marrying a non-muslim man (of the book) who is interested in converting to islam if he allows her to practice Islam, to learn about Islam together and has agreed for all the children from the marriage to be raised as muslims.

    • Dawud Says:

      O believers, when believing women come over to you as refugees, then examine them. God alone is cognizant of their faith. If you find that they are believers, do not send them back to unbelievers. They are not lawful for them, nor are infidels lawful for believing women.

    • Sister Cece Says:

      Having been already estabilshed ina marriage especially with responsibility of children is much more difficult to divorce than those who marry nonbelievers. These are clearly 2 different situations. May Allah may it easy.

  4. naim tuna Says:

    You who give such a fatwas have te fear Allah becose the ijma of scholars is estabilishet that a muslim woman is haram to be maried to a kafir or to stay maried to a kafir if she converts to islam. Anyone who belive that this is alowed becomes a kafir for allowing what Allah has forbiden: And if you know them belivers (the muslim women) do not turn them back to dhe kuffars, no them (muslim woman) are allowed for them and no them (kafirs) are allowed for them. (Mumtehinah) So fear Allah and do not call muslim women to zina, if you want do call kafirs to islam by allowing te muslim women to comitte zina then send your doghters and sisters to find some kafir boyfrend maybe these kafirs convert to islam after having relaitonship with you doghters. Don’t change the rulings of islam and them pretending that you are calling to islam.

  5. Lina Says:

    Think about the fact, that if we divorce because of my (possible) conversion to Islam, there will be at least 30 people who will never even consider Islam as a true religion after that. That includes my husband and children, our parents and siblings and nephews.
    The only reason for that I haven´t converted yet is the question of marriage here. I am happily married and we love each other. I see my family as potential converts.

    But, maybe it´s better to stay as a christian then and still believe in one God. It can´t be right to hurt so many innocent people including my own children.

    And even if I would convert, I couldn´t do it openly or visit the mosque because of other muslims would laugh me out because of my (so far) non-muslim family (and the family is a blessing for me, nothing to laugh at).

    If I was young I would convert and marry a practising muslim, of course. It seems to be that I and many other women have lost “everything” by living our own lives… and God did know that it would go like this.

    If I have to choose between being a muslim or a mother, I choose to be a mother. And wish that my children will later choose the right path – in time!

    • hatfield Says:

      All these problems arise because Islam is a wholistic system. When you try and practise it in a non_Islamic soicety many problems/issues arise.

      So instead of changing Islam to fit fads and fashion. Muslims should construct an Islamic society in the muslim world so people then witness what islam is.

      These marriages issues are not new. Non Muslim women embrcaced Islam during the prophets era whem Muslims were a minority. So we whould follow their example and not re-engineer Islam.

  6. Announcement Books by Sheikh Abdullah Judai - Page 3 Says:

    […] googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1326644231210-0'); }); Here us the fatwa I searched for: WHAT HAPPENS TO A MARRIAGE IF ONE OF THE COUPLE CONVERTS TO ISLAM? | UNITY […]

  7. “Hidden Heart” « Christian Muslim Forum Says:

    […] [3] https://unity1.wordpress.com/2012/01/13/what-happens-to-a-marriage-if-one-of-the-couple-converts-to-i… […]

  8. Daoud Says:

    Thank you for this. Most online discussions of Islam and interfaith marriage overlook my situation. My wife follows a non-Abrahamic (non-kitabi) religion, and I suppose would be classed as an idolator. I would like to convert to Islam, but am unwilling to divorce her. We have a good marriage. She believes what she believes, and lets me believe what I believe.

    I wonder how representative the above viewsare of Islamic jurisprudence. I wish I could see a breakdown by school. We live in a non-Muslim society, but I wonder what law would govern our situation in various Muslim countries.

  9. Brittany Darr Says:

    i have a question, i am a christian woman currently. I plan on taking my shahada and marrying a muslim man. I have a son, from a previous relationship who is not muslim. Due to laws and interactions with his father, my son cannot convert with me without his fathers permission. (highly unlikely) How do i go about that relationship and the holidays involved in christianity? Without my son feeling upset about it. Or like something is wrong.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Trust your instinct, and follow your head and heart to do the right thing and not upset family members. There are many mixed Muslim-Christian families around due to people converting from one faith to another, and they generally manage to avoid friction, celebrate and respect each others’ traditions and festivals, etc. All the best, and may Allah/God be with you!

  10. eab Says:

    my relationship with my wife goes off and on,lately. I told her to leave in my parents house because she sleep in different room. Now i suspect that she might have a muslim man. If so, is there a possibility that our marriage already annulled?Now what happened to us?is there anyone can advice my situation?thank you

  11. Donald Afriyie Says:

    can a Christian man convert and marry a Muslim woman

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Yes

    • namirou Says:

      absolutely YES, however if you are previously married under civil law.. then you can be charged of a bigamy case.. there is a new jurisprudence now that penalizes a converted man who enters into a subsequent marriage .. there is a remedy however its a long discussion.. you may want to contact me 0977-2035-730

  12. MMS Says:

    My boyfriend is a Baha’i, so he believes in Muhammad but does not follow Islam. At first I think over time he is willing to convert and become a Muslim. But he believes that we can be together regardless the religions we follow.
    Is it possible for me to be married with him without he convert?
    If I married to him without his conversion and my parents get angry and disown me, is it a sin for me? Appreciate your thought on this.

    • Hatfield Says:

      Salaam.
      Bahai are not Muslims, so a Muslim woman’s marriage would not be considered legal under the shariah.

      Also according to most schools of thought, a girl needs her father’s consent to get marriage,unless she has been married before.

      Best to consult a recognised imam in person rather than get answers from anonymous people on the net.

      May Allah guide you to righteousness. Ameen.

      • Usama Hasan Says:

        Thank you, Hatfield. According to the Hanafi school, and adopted by both Siba’i and Zuhayli amongst recent jurists, a woman does not need her father or other male guardian’s permission to marry.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      If you would still like to discuss your situation, please email me privately: dr(dot)usama(dot)hasan(at)gmail(dot)com, thanks.

  13. Jenie Says:

    I’m a Christian women. My husband is a hindu. We do register married. my husband and I have 3 kids now. me and my husband has separated for 14 years. my husband make a women pregnant and living with her with one baby. Later the women leave my husband and go away with the baby. Now my husband have a Malay women and he want to married her and convert to Muslim and divorce me. Please I want to know what I can do now and how is the procedure.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Dear Jenie, I recommend that you seek the advice of a good family lawyer in your area. He or she will be able to advise you about the best course of action with regard to the divorce. As far as I can see, your separated husband’s choices about converting to Islam etc, do *not* affect you in any other way – he will still have to agree to a civil divorce, since you have a registered marriage.

  14. Marilou Padilla Says:

    Is there any law of muslim if the man converted to muslim and marry again although he has his first wife christian and have children and the wife do not nottice that his husband converted to muslim and he dont sustain the needs of his first family and it is legal what should i do

  15. LORMA LOPEZ Says:

    Assalamu alaikum! Can anyone help me with my questions please…..I am a Muslim convert for two years now. I had a previous Catholic marriage but had been separated for more than 22 years now. Is that marriage still valid after I have converted to Islam? If it is still valid, what do I need to do to make it invalid? Assuming it is no longer valid, do I still need a wali when I decide to get married? Should I still need to be given a mahr by my future husband?

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      wa ‘alaykum as-salam & apologies for the delay in replying. The main issue sounds like this: your Catholic marriage is likely to be legally recognised in the country where you contracted it. You may need to seek legal advice in order to obtain a divorce or annul the marriage, since divorce is generally prohibited in Catholicism.

      Once you have a divorce or annulment, you may indeed marry again as a Muslim woman, according to Islamic ethics. There is some disagreement on the matter, but I recommend the Hanafi view that you do not need a wali to get married, unless you wish to have one. Also, you are entitled to ask for a mahr or to waive it.

  16. zang Says:

    If Christian girl is married in philippines and fall in love with muslim man and they want make their relationship legal. If she will convert in muslim and can get married with muslim man in abroad.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      You have answered your own question, but please note also that according to the dominant Islamic tradition, a Muslim man may marry a Christian woman without her converting to Islam. She may of course convert to Islam if she wishes.

      I am not familiar with the laws regarding marriage and religion in the Philippines, so please seek advice elsewhere about that.

  17. Sittie Aisha Says:

    Salaam,
    My boyfriend now is legally married.He converted to Islam after 3 years from their marriage.His wife is remain christian.after 6 years of being together they decided to end up their relationship to the reason of they don’t understand each other no more.always quarel,until things become more worst.after 2 years of being separated (but they are not legally separated) we meet each other.and oir relationship become deeper and much happier.He proposed a marriage to me in Islam faith.So,then I converted to Islam and we marry through Islam faith.
    Is there marriage still valid?can I carry my husband name?Is his first wife can file a case to us?if she,what kind of case?and about the property that we invested,is his first wife have the right to it? Considering that the time that he converted to islam his first wife didnt know about it.
    Please give an advise.

    Thank you,

    Sincerely yours,
    Sittie Aisha from Philippines

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Salaam. Please seek legal advice from someone who knows the laws about marriage and religious faith in the Philippines. Sorry I am not able to help you more. God be with you.

  18. stitches026 Says:

    My husband and i been married in civil marriage for 14 years,i worked in taiwan for 3 years.we are okay in that past 2 years but suddenly when i got home after my contract,without my consent he converted to muslim to marry another woman,and that woman is also just converted to muslim.Is our civil marriage still valid?can i sue him to court?

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      From what you say, it sounds like your civil marriage is indeed still valid. Please get good legal advice in your locality, since I don’t know which country you are in. God be with you.

  19. Jannah Says:

    Salaam,

    I am married in paper and separated for 16 years, i am now moslem, would be my marriage as christian will be null and void even without court procedures in Philippines, and can I marry a moslem man without any issues

    thank you
    Jannah

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Salaam. Please seek expert legal advice regarding marriage and religious faith in the Philippines, about which I am not aware. However, it sounds like you should obtain a divorce on paper to end your marriage on paper, before you marry again under the law of the Philippines.

  20. Sammy Says:

    Salam Alaikum, I have been married for 9 years and together 16, My husband and I have 4 children and both have been raised practicing Pentecostal Christians since babys. MY Question is this: if i was to take my shahada and became a revert but my husband remains a Practicing christian will it be legal in the eyes of islam, I have spoken to many muslims who say i will have to leave my Husband but we have such a happy God filled marriage and a secured life our children are well structured and are respectful of islam so is my husband but he refuses to revert as he believes 100% in the father son and holy spirit doctrine. for me the scripture of the bible has led me to islam but it makes no sense breaking a covenant of marriage until our death that we both took before God. Please help me as this is weighing heavy on me and i know Islam to be the trueful. Kindest regards Sammy

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      wa ‘alaykum as-salam. Please read the post above. As per the authoritative fatwa there, you can take the shahada, convert to Islam and remain with your husband, perfectly good and blessed within Islam. May God be with you and your husband. – Usama

  21. julie Says:

    Salam.me and my ex husband plan to annulment.but we don’t have money.he have now gf and plan to marry.me also have bf.and I want convert Muslim..if possible I can marry my Muslim bf if I convert Muslim?and my married to my ex husband is still valid.really I want convert muslim even i dont have bf before.please help me.thank

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Salam. You should legally end or annul your previous marriage before getting married again, otherwise you may be breaking the law in the country where you live. Please seek expert legal advice in your locality.

  22. Abdullah Says:

    My wife and i is separated for 13 years, she has husband now and kid, i am now a converted muslim , what will happen to our civil marriage in the philippines. Can i divorce her in shariah court, and if approve is it recognize by philippine law thanks

  23. Wan P. Says:

    Does anyone have an opinion on the following.

    I am the product of a marriage between a Muslim farther and a Muslim convert, so by birth I would have been recognized as Muslim except my parents were about to divorce and my mother flew back to Europe to give birth and secretly had me also christened before flying back to Malaysia.
    I grew to age 10 in Malaysia as a Muslim and then my mother moved herself and my siblings to the UK after her divorce and the ongoing “Emergency” in Malaysia at the time. While in the UK I was presented as Christian and was constantly at odds with my families abandonment of our previous value system and the imposition of non halal practices.

    The first question.

    1, Am I considered a Muslim who was abandoned by his father and faith or am I a christian who thought he was a Muslim.

    This is enough for now but the plot gets worse!

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Sounds to me like you were brought up as a Muslim until age 10 at least. Assuming you’re an adult now, it really does not matter, since what is important now is what you freely believe and choose to practise in terms of religious or spiritual tradition, if any. God be with you!

  24. جميلة ميخائيل Says:

    Reblogged this on No More Hurting People Peace and commented:
    Thank you for this great and thoughtful article 🙂 I always thought it was insane for people to get divorced simply because one person became a Muslim since Islam places such a high importance on family.

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Thank you. I would be very interested in Shia jurisprudence on the above matter, although note that some of the fatwa bodies referenced above have a very small Shia representation sometimes.

  25. HannyBusra Says:

    Salaam, thank you very much for writing this article, which has brought some peace to my heart.

    I have a question, which I would be grateful to receive your opinion:

    I am Muslim female and married a convert to Islam and since living together, have found that he practices in a completely different way to me. For example, I strongly believe in praying 5 times a day, and he does not believe it is compulsory.

    I am learning everyday, that there are some fundamental things we greatly differ on. I have been focussing on this a lot recently as I feel afraid, and not sure if I have done wrong by marrying someone who was still finding his way with Islam. I know if I don’t focus on these things, and allow him to find Islam in his own way, then we have few problems. But we discuss it everyday because I feel strongly I have done wrong and failed somewhere by praying someone new to Islam.

    I fear that he will move further away from Islam and maybe it was a phase for him and I should have waited a few more years or let it go. I am not sure whether, I should keep going or finish things before my fear becomes a reality.

    Have I done wrong by marrying a convert who is still trying to understand Islam and may find it is not for him.

    I am overthinking as I can’t possibly predict what the future holds but my love for Allah is turning in to fear of Allah and I feel there were signs that I should have waited but at the time I felt the right thing to do was get married.

    I understand over thinking leads to confusion and is no benefit to anyone but with matters like this, I feel there is very little guidance or asssitance.

    Thank you

    • Usama Hasan Says:

      Assalamu ‘alaykum. Thank you for your question. From what you’ve described, I’m sure that you did the right thing in getting married. My advice (as an imam for over 30 years): follow your heart, and encourage your husband to follow his. But by all means do discuss your understandings of Islam with each other, in a loving, civilised and polite manner, and learn together about faith, religion and spirituality to deepen your understanding. Life is a continuous journey to God, so keep praying for divine guidance in your journeys and trust that the divine will looks after you. You certainly should not be considering divorce or anything like that, simply on the basis of your differing interpretations of Islam. And, if it’s any consolation, there are many couples in similar positions to yours. May Allah be with you both, and bless and guide you both always!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: