Posts Tagged ‘Darwinism’

A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A FATWA PROHIBITING POKEMON

July 25, 2016

A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A FATWA PROHIBITING POKEMON

The following discussion of old and new fatwas about Pokemon illustrates how even an innocent or innocuous children’s cartoon is made into a symbol of a binary division worldwide by islamist extremism.

09/04/2001 Al Qaradawi prohibits Pokemon http://www.aljazeera.net/news/cultureandart/2001/4/9/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%B6%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%89-%D8%A8%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%88%D9%83%D9%8A%D9%85%D9%88%D9%86

11/07/2016 Pokemon craze sweeps across the Middle East http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2016/07/11/Pok-mon-craze-sweeps-across-Mideast-.html

14/07/2016 Al-Azhar condemns Pokemon ‘mania’ http://gulfnews.com/news/mena/egypt/al-azhar-condemns-pokemon-mania-1.1862458

20/07/2016 Pokemon Go ‘haram’ – The Council of Senior Scholars of Saudi Arabia has explicitly renewed its own 2001 fatwa prohibiting Pokemon, to include Pokemon Go http://www.arabnews.com/node/956681/saudi-arabia

Summary of 2001 Aljazeera.net article (translation by Usama Hasan):

Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi issued a fatwa prohibiting the Japanese Pokemon cartoon series and related films and games, “in order to protect the minds, beliefs and character of our children as well as their money: these people have perfected the art of looting it from them by consent, and gradually drawing their fathers and mothers into agreement also.”

Sheikh Qaradawi explained that his fatwa prohibiting Pokemon was issued after discussion broke out about Pokemon, its Sharia ruling and whether it is halal or haram. The Sheikh added, “I was asked about this by many fathers and mothers concerned about bringing their children up in an authentic Islamic way, in which their beliefs would be sound, their worship correct, their souls purified and their manners and character upright.”

Qaradawi emphasised that his fatwa was based upon the views of devout believers who were also experienced thinkers and who knew the issues of art, drama and TV series etc. He warned that Muslim jurists must not rush to pronounce judgment on such issues before knowing its reality, “for the judgment upon something is derived from its conception, and the jurists usually are not aware of such matters because they do not watch such series or games, especially since these are for children.”

Sheikh Qaradawi specified five reasons that led him to prohibit Pokemon:

  1. It is a danger to our creed (‘aqidah), since it is based on Darwinian thought, known as the theory of evolution, the development of species and types from lower to higher and more powerful creations.
  2. It is a danger to a child’s mentality and his good, intellectual upbringing, since it implants in his mind imaginary matters that have no foundation, supernatural things that are not consistent with God’s natural ways. This is because these insects or new creatures (Pokemons) have weird and wonderful qualities that have no basis in either reason or tradition.
  3. Pokemon is a danger to a child’s character and their good relationship with those around them, since the film has unearthed the theory of conflict and survival of the strongest, which is also a Darwinian theory. The film and TV series promote perpetual conflict, continuous fighting and a cycle of violence amongst its characters.
  4. The Pokemon game involves a type of gambling [in this case, spending money without equal counter-value], which is prohibited by the Sharia, since the upgrades are sold for tens, hundreds or even thousands of riyals, dirhams, pounds or dinars, especially the most powerful upgrades.
  5. Pokemon has characteristic symbols that have their own indications, e.g. the “six-pointed star” that is related to Zionism and Freemasonry, and which has become a symbol of the usurpatory state named “Israel.”

[6] Qaradawi called upon Muslims and Arabs to have “our own special products that express our beliefs, values, laws, customs, heritage and civilisation. Our innovative writers, academics, artists, technologists, the rich and the powerful should work together to do this. Thus, we should present films and cartoon series that carry our message and express our personality and religious, cultural and civilisational identity in simple, eloquent and attractive language.”

Brief comments on the above points by Usama Hasan:

  1. Darwinism: interestingly, a leading 19th-century Western scientist regarded this as a Muslim theory: “ … the Mohammedan theory of the evolution of man from lower forms, or his gradual development to his present condition in the long lapse of time.” (History of the Conflict between Religion and Science by John William Draper, 1811-1882, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library, p. 188) Furthermore, Sheikh Qaradawi himself later moved away from this blanket condemnation of evolutionary theory: “Even research into the beginning of creation [is allowed in Islam], as long as one keeps in mind that we are looking into creation, meaning that there is a Creator … Even if we assume that species evolved from species, this is only by the will of the Creator, according to the laws of the Creator … If Darwin’s theory is proven, we can find Qur’anic verses that will fit with it …” Al-Jazeera TV (Al-Shari`ah wal Hayat, Arabic), 3 March 2009
  2. This discussion could be applied to many weak hadiths and also to fiction, including science fiction that is known to help inspire scientists, e.g. Arthur C Clarke’s famous predictions of the emergence of the internet and other developments. For science fiction in an Arab/Islamic context, see the Sindbad Sci-Fi project (http://sindbadscifi.com/)
  3. For sure, violence in films, TV shows and computer games is a major matter of concern for humanity worldwide. However, Sheikh Qaradawi’s concern in this regard is undermined by his other fatwas permitting the murder of Israeli civilians, since he regards Israel as a “militarised society” and therefore does not recognise any Israeli adults as civilians.

    Note also that the “survival of the fittest” is an aspect of our biological nature that was recognised by Muslim thinkers over a thousand years ago, including Al-Jahiz (776-869 CE) and his “Struggle for Existence” theory that anticipated a type of crude Lamarckism, one of the precursory theories to Darwinian evolution. (See Rebecca Stott, Darwin’s Ghosts, Bloomsbury, 2012, Chapter 3: Al-Jahiz; cf. also Jim al-Khalili, Pathfinders, p. 76)

  4. Certainly, wasting large sums of money on useless computer games is wrong. But relaxation is part of, and preparation for, worship of God in the Islamic tradition and people are entitled to have a small budget for such leisure. Furthermore, computer games can aid and develop some neural and reflex skills.
  5. Note that the Moroccan flag, pre-Israel, also carried a six-pointed star, also known as the Star of David (Arabic: najm Dawud) or the Seal of Solomon (khatam Sulayman). Six-pointed stars are also found engraved on the walls built by the Ottoman Muslim ruler Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent around Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, and on the tomb of the Prophet Muhammad’s maternal aunt Umm Haram in Cyprus (http://keehuachee.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/part-2-hala-sultan-tekke-mosque-in.html). Since David and Solomon are revered “Prophet-Kings” in the Qur’an and the Islamic tradition, it is wrong to condemn their symbols. Indeed, Sufis such as Idries Shah and Martin Lings comment on the vertical-horizontal mystical symbolism of the six-pointed star.

    Furthermore, researchers into anti-semitism correctly note that “criticising Israel is not anti-semitism, but singling Israel out amongst the world’s states for criticism is anti-semitism.” (Similarly, I would argue that criticising Islam is not Islamophobia, but singling out Islam amongst the world’s religions, philosophies and traditions for criticism is Islamophobia.)

  6. The desire to preserve one’s own values is understandable, but nationalism taken to an extreme becomes fascism. The above fatwa was issued before 9/11 and smacks of divisive, us-vs.-them discourse, not to mention that it places Japanese Muslims in a very difficult situation, cf. A History of Islam in Japanhttps://unity1.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/islam-in-japan.pdf). It is also unhelpful for Western Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Indian Muslims and others. There is a certain irony about an Arab Sheikh using Western and Japanese technology to promote a xenophobic message, as though violence and other problematic issues do not exist within Arab and Muslim culture.

    The 99 (Islamic Superheroes) by Dr Naif al-Mutawa, produced 2006-2013, are arguably the kind of thing that Qaradawi was calling for. But here is a sobering reminder of some of the reaction to it (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_99): Saudi clerics ruled the series blasphemous because the superheroes of its title are based on the 99 attributes ascribed to Allah in the Holy Quran. The Grand Mufti Abdulaziz al-Sheikh said, “The 99 is a work of the devil that should be condemned and forbidden in respect to Allah’s names and attributes.” The original comic strip version, first released in 2006, had already run into opposition from Muslims not only in Saudi Arabia but also in neighboring Kuwait, where it was created and produced by media executive Nayef al-Mutawa. Andrea Peyser, columnist at the New York Post, wrote in October 2010: “Hide your face and grab the kids. Coming soon to a TV in your child’s bedroom is a posse of righteous, Sharia-compliant Muslim superheroes, including one who fights crime hidden head-to-toe by a burqa.” In 2014, The Kuwait Times reported that ISIL members had issued death threats and offered unspecified rewards for the assassination of Dr. Al-Mutawa, via Twitter. Al-Mutawa defended the work saying that he had received clearance from sharia scholars and never would have gone ahead with the project had he not.

    See also Burka Avenger (http://www.burkaavenger.com/), an award-winning homegrown Pakistani cartoon series (2013-present, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burka_Avenger) that is currently aired by Nickelodeon in Pakistan.

What we do need now is an inclusive discourse of universal, shared values, of replacing a “clash of civilisations” with a dialogue and co-operation of civilisations.

Usama Hasan, 15/07/16 (edited 25/07/16)

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Islam and Science workshop presentations – London 2013

July 27, 2015

Bismillah. I have been working on the report for the “Islam & Science – The Big Questions” (of science and Islamic theology) Task Force that I convened in Istanbul in February 2015, chaired by Prof. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, by the grace of God.  The Task Force report will be published in a few weeks, God-willing.

This reminded me that we had not sufficiently circulated the presentations from our “Islam & Science” workshop in London from 2013, some of which the current Task Force builds on.  So, here are the presentations from that workshop, as well as the final report. These should be of interest to anyone interested in cutting-edge discussions about Islam and science, religion and science, etc. University students should find these presentations a useful resource, especially for their own dissertations and theses. Enjoy!

front page of Islam Science Workshop

1- Ibn Sina – Ehsan Masood

2- Science and Religion – Jean Staune

3- Islam and Modern Science – Nidhal Guessoum: slides unavailable, but you may view a similar lecture with similar slides here (Faraday Institute, University of Cambridge)

4- 1001 Inventions Exhibition – Yasmin Khan

5- Science Policy and Politics in the Islamic World – Athar Osama

6- Theories of Evolution – Jean Staune

6a- Lying in the Name of God – Jean Staune

7- Evolution and Islam – Nidhal Guessoum: slides unavailable, but you may read one of his articles on the topic here

8- Islam and the Theory-Fact of Evolution – Usama Hasan

9- Islamic Cosmology – Bruno Guiderdoni

10- Islam Science Ethics – Usama Hasan

Islam and Science Workshop 2013 – Final Report

 

Islam and Science Workshop – London 2013 – A Summary

February 22, 2013

Bismillah.  This is a cross-post from http://www.quilliamfoundation.org/events/islam-science-workshop-2013/

Quilliam, in association with the Université Interdisciplinaire de Paris, the American University of Sharjah and Muslim-Science.com, organised and hosted an international workshop entitled “Islam and Science: A Reasoned Approach” for students and young researchers, 18th-20th January 2013 at the Institute of Education, University of London, UK.

The participants consisted of 23 people selected by submission of essays on Science-Religion topics and/or their suitability as “disseminators of ideas” following on from the workshop. These 23 participants included three people from France, the USA and Egypt. There were a total of seven speakers at the workshop: three from the UK, two from France and one each from the UAE and Pakistan.

Introduction – Friday 18th January 2013

The workshop began with a screening of the 1-hour documentary film, Science and Islam – Dialogues for the 21st Century, which was produced by the Université Interdisciplinaire de Paris and featuring interviews with 22 leading scientists, theologians, philosophers and thinkers about the interfaces between religion and science in general, and focusing on Islam in particular.

This was followed by a presentation by Ehsan Masood, author of the BBC series-accompanying book, Islam and Science: A History, a presentation entitled Ibn Sina (Avicenna) – The Man Who Knew Everything, about the life, work and influence throughout Islamic and Christian history of this early Muslim polymath. A lively discussion followed about Ibn Sina’s philosophy and methodology and the scientific rationalisation of miracles.

Saturday 19th January 2013

Prof. Jean Staune (Université Interdisciplinaire de Paris) started with presentation on Science and Religion in the World today & New Paradigms of Science, in which he summarised the major developments in 20th-century science such as relativity and quantum theories in physics, Godel’s theorem in mathematical epistemology, and De Duve and Conway-Morris’ ideas of direction, non-randomness, and convergence in biological evolution. He showed how these “new paradigms” have influenced the discourse in “Science and Religion”, and how this field has become a growing academic discipline in its own right with chairs at Oxford, Cambridge and Harvard. This was followed by Prof. Nidhal Guessoum (American University of Sharjah), who gave a general overview of the main topic, Islam and Science, showing why “modern science” (particularly “methodological naturalism”) poses a challenge for traditional religious views and discussing the various contemporary Muslim responses to the challenge, ranging from Nasr’s “Sacred Science” and Sardar’s “Islamic/Ethical Science” to Salam’s “Universal Science”, ending with his own “Averroesian Harmonization.”

Yasmin Khan (former curator at both the Science Museum and the British Library) spoke on The 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the Science Museum, London: Engaging the Public in a Multicultural History of Science, a behind-the-scenes look at the challenges of commissioning the most successful touring exhibition in the history of the Science Museum, with a screening of the exhibition’s central 15-minute film, 1001 Inventions and The Library of Secrets, starring Sir Ben Kingsley as Al-Jazari.

Dr. Athar Osama (of Muslim-Science.com) complemented the day’s philosophical, theological, historical, civilisational and public-outreach themes with a sobering presentation on Science Policy in the Muslim World Today: Challenges and Prospects, focusing on governmental public policy and investment in science education and research and an analysis of the funding and work of COMSTECH, the OIC’s arm for science and technology.

Sunday 20th January 2013

Dr. Jean Staune gave a fascinating presentation on the Theories of Evolution. The philosopher of science showed multiple lines of evidence that evolution is an indisputable fact, but one that should not be confused with Darwinism. Based on the research of leading palaeontologists such as Conway-Morris and on the work of Nobel laureate De Duve and others, Staune insisted that the current Darwinian theory of evolution is incompatible at best, and presented ideas implying that evolution is a process leading, sooner or later, to beings like us with a consciousness of their own existence and the ability to seek God.

This was followed by a joint presentation on Islam and the Theory/Fact of Evolution by Prof. Nidhal Guessoum and Dr. Usama Hasan (Quilliam). The presentations included theological and scriptural arguments supporting evolution as well as a history of evolutionary ideas within Muslim civilisation since the 9th century CE from Al-Jahiz and the Brethren of Purity through to Rumi and Ibn Khaldun, a history recognised by a number of historians, Muslim and non-Muslim ones. Also covered was the acceptance of biological evolution by 19th/20th-century Muslim theologians such as Husain al-Jisr (nicknamed “the Ash’ari of our times” by Afghani), and ‘Abd al-Sabur Shahin, a well-known scholar of Al-Azhar. Current Muslim resistance to scientific facts was illustrated with historical precedents of misreading the Qur’an to make inflexible but erroneous assertions about scientific matters, such as Ibn Kathir and Shanqiti’s insistence that the earth was created before the heavens, Suyuti’s insistence that the earth is flat and Ibn Taymiyyah’s assertion that cattle (sheep, goats, cows and camels) were created in heaven (which would imply that modern-day followers of Ibn Taymiyyah who insist that humans were created in heaven and descended from there must also believe the same about those four species of mammals).

The sessions by Staune, Guessoum and Hasan illustrated well the irony that whilst modern biology, built on evolution, has succeeded in mapping the entire human genome as well as the DNA of thousands of other species, and new fields emerge such as astrobiology and the origin-of-life research looking at deep-sea volcanoes, many Muslims (and Christians) continue to debate whether or not evolution (including that of humans) is a fact, despite the overwhelming scientific evidence.

Dr. Bruno Abdelhaq Guiderdoni (Director of the Lyon Observatory) gave a fascinating presentation on Islam & Cosmology: Yesterday and Today, based on the mind-boggling discoveries of modern astronomy, including the existence of exo-planets in earth-like habitable orbits around stars other than the sun. In his lecture, Dr. Guiderdoni stressed the need to read the “Book of Nature” along with the “Book of God” and to maintain the inseparability of science and ethics. The discussion included topics such as the possibility of a multiverse and the question of extra-terrestrial intelligence and life-forms.

Dr. Guiderdoni’s emphasis on ethics led nicely to the session by Dr. Usama Hasan on Islam, Science and Ethics, in which he presented the theory of Maqasid al-Sharia (The Universal, Higher Objectives of Islamic Law) as an Islamic framework for ethics suitable for “Universal Science.” The framework is based on the Islamic principles of justice as minimum, compassion as maximum, promoting benefit and avoiding harm. The theory was illustrated with reference to ethical questions around family planning, abortion and organ transplants.

The workshop concluded with an open and long discussion session involving all participants, further exploring the ideas presented at the workshop and possible next steps to take the exciting conversations forward.