Bismillah. With the global discussion about the veil due to “World Hijab Day” on 1st February, 2014, this is a good time to re-publish here a detailed, academic paper from 2011. It is from the following book: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Islam-Veil-Theoretical-Regional-Contexts/dp/1441187359/ – one of the editors was kind enough to say that mine was the best paper in the collection, which was quite a compliment since other authors include Javaid Ghamidi and other experts.
Please click here to download the full paper: Islam and the Veil – Usama Hasan
I also suggest the following questions as a guide to study/discussion sessions about this topic:
STUDY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ABOUT VEILING (FOR A HETEROSEXUAL CONTEXT)
1. Distinguish between the terms hijab (veil), khimar (headscarf) and jilbab (covering). Are these religious or cultural aspects of dress/clothing, or a mixture of the two, i.e. religio-cultural?
2. God is veiled from humanity. What is the nature of the veil(s), and what is meant by the veil being lifted for the believers’ Vision of God? How did veiling (of women, caliphs – who had a hajib, etc.) symbolise the above truths?
3. What is the significance, if any, of the fact that in Surah al-Nur, men are instructed before women to “lower their gaze and guard their chastity” ?
4. Surah al-Nur: women were instructed to draw their headscarves (khimar) over their bosoms. Is this a command to cover the head and hair, or to cover the breasts, or all of the above?
5. Surah al-Nur: What is meant by the “ordinarily-apparent adornment” (zinah zahirah) that may be displayed by women? Is it parts of the body, the top layer of clothing, jewellery, make-up or a combination of these? What would then be the implied “hidden beauty/charms” (zinah batinah) that men and women would only reveal to close family, spouses, etc. ?
6. Some Companions insisted that women must be covered top to toe in public, including the face; others excepted the face and hands, as did the majority of early authorities; others excepted the forearms, half-way to the elbows (Tabari) or all the way to the elbows (Qadi Abu Yusuf, for women who worked in bakeries and thus had to roll up their sleeves – mentioned by Imam Sarakhsi in Al-Mabsut); others excepted the feet also (Abu Hanifah); some even excepted the head and hair (minority view mentioned by Ibn ‘Ashur). Some female Companions gathered their skirts when nursing warriors in battle such that their ankles or shins were visible (‘Aisha & Hafsa – Sahih al-Bukhari). How are these views to be understood from the text? Do the above views indicate that the context and ‘urf (social custom) is influential in what constitutes modest and appropriate dress?
7. Is the hadith of Asma about “covering up except face and hands” genuine or weak? If the latter, does that support the niqab-obligation view or the khimar-not-necessary view?
8. Is a woman to be regarded as “naked” and “sinful” if her face, hands, head, hair, feet, ankles, shins and/or forearms are visible in public, as per the above views? Or should the onus be on men to restrain lustful glances, as they are ordered to do so beforehand in Surah al-Nur?
9. Surah al-Nur: In terms of the males “having no sexual desire” before whom a woman doesn’t need to worry about veiling, the commentators have extended this to several categories. How should this be understood in modern societies? What is your view about the classical view that obliged women to cover in front of their fathers and brothers to prevent the latter having incestuous thoughts?
10. Surah al-Nur: About “their women” before whom women can unveil, does this apply only to Muslim women or to all women (both views are classical) ? Does it matter about the morality of such female company, i.e. is the matter related to appropriate dress and behaviour?
11. Surah al-Ahzab (hijab meaning curtain or screen): Does this verse imply gender-segregation? If so, is that a general principle or was it only for the Prophet’s wives and family?
12. Surah al-Ahzab: what is meant by the jilbab? Is it simply a shawl (Ibn al-Arabi & Ibn Kathir), any dress that reasonably covers the body, an outer garment or cloak on top of usual clothes, or a cloak with a hood that must go on top of a khimar (Albani’s view) ?
13. Surah al-Ahzab: The jilbab is explicitly “that they may be recognised (as noble women) so they are not harassed.” How is that to be understood and practiced in the modern world? Is it true that traditional clothing, i.e. khimar/jilbab/niqab protects Muslim women from sexual harassment in various societies?
14. How does fiqh al-ma’al (jurisprudence of consequences, cf. Sheikh Abdullah bin Bayyah) apply to issues of gender-segregation and veiling/unveiling in the modern world? In particular, what implications do veiling/unveiling have for working or professional women in Muslim/non-Muslim societies?
15. Is the khimar or headscarf (mistakenly called hijab) a normal part of clothing in some cultures, analogous to a hat or cap, or a symbol of faith, modesty, purity, identity, or some combination of these?
16. What are the psycho-spiritual effects of wearing a headscarf and/or jilbab and/or niqab for women? Do these lead to confidence, subjugation, control, spirituality, modesty, pride, purity, ostentation, humility, holier-than-thou attitude or a combination of these?
17. What are the psycho-spiritual effects upon men of women wearing a headscarf and/or jilbab and/or niqab? In men, do these lead to feelings of purity, increased/decreased/repressed desire, a positive/negative attitude towards veiled/unveiled women, or a combination of these? How does all this affect the attitudes of Muslim/non-Muslim men towards Muslim/non-Muslim women, whether veiled or unveiled, and their perceptions of beauty, attractiveness, sexuality and desire?
18. What is all the fuss really about, and are men and women equal in this whole discussion? Do the notions of gender-equality and women’s liberation have any bearing on the whole issue?
19. Who should ultimately decide what is appropriate dress and behaviour for men and women in a given society? Is it men, or women, or male religious scholars, or female religious scholars, or panels of religious scholars, or society as a whole including parents, families, religious/spiritual authorities, etc.?
20. And finally, how does God, with the 99 Names of Beauty (jamali) and Majesty (jalali), to Whom we are all returning, relate to all of this in our lives?
London, 3rd February 2014 / 3rd Rabi’ al-Thani 1435